The ‘transnational turn’ in migration studies, beginning in the early 1990s, has been the subject of vigorous debate by migration scholars, with ‘transnationalism’ (and its family members – transnational, transmigrant, transnationality) becoming contested terms as theorists discuss and develop different strands of the literature.
Over the last thirty years, Eric Dunning’s claim that ‘sport matters’ has been widely accepted in social science scholarship. This development in scholarly debates fittingly reflects modern sport’s global interconnections and social effects in the economic, cultural and political realms, which have established it as a powerful facilitator, provider and resource for an ‘array of identities’.
Everyday nationalism as a sub-field refocuses attention on the ‘masses’ and human agency within nationalism studies to consider the role and relevance of the everyday, and relevance of the lived experience of nationalism.
Cultural nationalism generally refers to ideas and practices that relate to the intended revival of a purported national community’s culture. If political nationalism is focused on the achievement of political autonomy, cultural nationalism is focused on the cultivation of a nation.